Keenly aware of the political divisions which had riven the country since 1789, his aim was to unite the French people. In 1830 the king was overthrown by a revolution which took place on 27, 28 and 29 July, subsequently dubbed the “Three Glorious Days." Additionally, it is known to include Thalia (the muse of Comedy), Melpomene, Calliope, and Apollo (Louis XIV's emblem)[56] and the twelve months of the year. The petit appartement de la reine is a suite of rooms that were reserved for the personal use of the queen. It was designed by Le Brun and made by the sculptor Jean-Baptiste Tuby at the Gobelins Manufactory between 1668 and 1670, cast in lead and then gilded. These volumes provide valuable archival material pursuant to the financial expenditure on all aspects of Versailles such as the payments disbursed for many trades as varied as artists and mole catchers. 1889 saw the inauguration of the Universal Exposition in Paris – of which the French Revolution was a key theme – with the Eiffel Tower erected to mark the occasion. In 1722, when the King came of age, he moved his residence and the government back to Versailles, where it remained until the French Revolution in 1789. In 1855, Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom was hosted at Versailles during her state visit: Queen Victoria visits the Queen’s Hamlet at the Petit Trianon, 21 August 1855 - Karl GirardetLe lien vers le site collection. The end of World War I was officially ended in 1919 with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles. Hadouin-Mansart added a second level and two large new wings on either side of the original Cour Royale (Royal Courtyard). The site of the Palace was first occupied by a small village and church, surrounded by forests filled with abundant game. On 31 July 1830 he left the Palais-Royal and headed for the Hôtel de Ville. Built to act as the official residence of the French monarchy during the reign of Louis XIV, the Palace still held this status under Louis XVI. [87] For most courtiers, bathing was infrequent and might only be carried out in portable bathtubs in their chambers, filled with water carried by hand from the nearest ground floor tap. Parts of the chateau, including the Gallery of Mirrors, were turned into a military hospital. After the Revolution, the Trianon served as a residence for both Napoleon I and later for King Louis-Philippe when they visited Versailles. Louis XVI was constrained by the worsening financial situation of the kingdom from making major changes to the palace, so that he primarily focused on improvements to the royal apartments. [78] Beyond the fountain, the Grand Canal extends 1800 meters to the south end of the park. Mary Wollstonecraft at Versailles during the French Revolution. Expenditures on Versailles have been recorded in the compendium known as the Comptes des bâtiments du roi sous le règne de Louis XIV and which were edited and published in five volumes by Jules Guiffrey in the 19th century. Vernet’s vision is somewhat detached from reality, since he fails to include the riots which actually took place in the capital in the last days of July. Built of red brick and cut stone embellishments, the U-shaped layout surrounds a black-and-white marble courtyard. Even the mirrors used in the decoration of the Hall of Mirrors were made in France. La Belle Epoque at the Palace of Versailles. Clearly inspired by ancient Greek art, David’s works usually depicted their heroes in the nude. The theater was reopened in 1957, in the presence of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. It includes two bosquets or groves: the grove of the Three Fountains, The Bosquet of the Arch of Triumph, and north of these, three major fountains, the Pyramid Fountain, Dragon Fountain, and the Neptune Fountain. The Neptune Fountain was originally decorated only with a circle of large lead basins jetting water; Louis XV added statues of Neptune, Triton and other gods of the sea. [30], As soon as the royal family departed, the Palace was closed, awaiting their return—but in fact, the monarchy would never again return to Versailles. After the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789, King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette would be stripped of power, brought to Paris and ultimately beheaded. Political transformation first and foremost, but social transformation too. As of 4 April 2008, silver has been trading in New York at US$17.83 an ounce. 336–339; Maral 2010, pp. [104] This was the third time since 1848 that a French president addressed a joint session of the French Parliament at Versailles. In 1682, when the palace had become large enough, the king moved the entire royal court and the French government to Versailles. Napoleon Bonaparte as First Consul - anonymous, after a work by Robert LefèvreLe lien vers le site collection. But drained budget, affairs and political intrigues complicate things. The Tennis Court Oath was sworn on 20 June 1789, with the assembled deputies vowing not to dissolve their session until they had endowed France with a written Constitution. [41] After the war when Soviet authorities were restoring the palace, which had been gutted by the retreating Nazi forces, they recreated the silk fabrics by using preserved 18th-century remnants. [32], In 1815, with the final downfall of Napoleon, Louis XVIII, the younger brother of Louis XVI, became King, and considered returning the royal residence to Versailles, where he had been born. The central painting on the ceiling, by Charles de la Fosse, depicts the Sun Chariot of Apollo, the King's favorite emblem, pulled by four horses and surrounded by the four seasons. Some of the palace furniture at this time was constructed of solid silver, but in 1689 much of it was melted down to pay for the cost of war. A monumental painting by Vernet features Louis Philippe himself, with his sons, posing in front of the gates of the Palace. The French Revolution began with the Storming of the Bastille on 14th July 1789. The Palace of Versailles was declared the official royal residence in 1682 and the official residence of the court of France on May 6, 1682, but it was abandoned after the death of Louis XIV in 1715. In that month, the government of the new Third French Republic, which had departed Paris during the War for Tours and then Bordeaux, moved into the Palace. Watch this video to explore the portrait of Adolphe Thiers, President of the French Republic from 1871 to 1873, as painted by Léon Bonnat (english subtitles): In the years after the suppression of the Paris Commune, a new sense of hope gradually emerged. She was at the Petit Trianon in July 1789 when she first heard the news from Paris of the storming of the Bastille and the beginning of the French Revolution. The current Chairperson of the Public Establishment is Catherine Pégard. Although it was designed by architect Louis Le Vau, the staircase was built by François d’Orbay and was primarily painted by Charles Le Brun. View Map View Map. In 1804 he proclaimed himself First Consul for life, the same year that he was crowned Emperor of the French under the regnal title Napoleon I. Napoleon I presented himself as the man to rebuild France after the bloody tumult which had gripped the country since 1789. One of the most lavish was the banquet that he hosted for Queen Victoria in the Royal Opera of Versailles on August 25, 1855. At this time France was also being rapidly transformed by the Industrial Revolution, and experiencing something of a golden age. [9] He decided to rebuild, embellish and enlarge the château and to transform it into a setting for both rest and for elaborate entertainments on a grand scale. The idea was revived by Louis XV with a new design by Ange-Jacques Gabriel in 1748, but this also was temporarily put aside. [53] At the time of its creation, Versailles was transitioning to reflect governmental power and authority instead of a private home for the crown. On the ground floor under the King's apartment was another apartment, the same size, designed for his private life, and decorated on the theme of Apollo, the Sun god, his personal emblem. A simple hunting lodging and later a small château with a moat occupied the site until 1661, when the first work expanding the château into a palace was carried out for Louis XIV. The War Salon commemorates the victorious campaign of Louis XIV against the Dutch, which ended in 1678. UK: 0345 475 1815 USA (toll free): 1-877-381-2914 International: 00 44 1722 237795 info@theculturalexperience.com. While the decoration of the palace was costly, certain other costs were minimised. Below the fireplace is a painting of Clio, the Muse of History, recording the exploits of the King. [11] In 1668 he added three new wings built of stone, known as the envelope, to the north, south and west (the garden side) of the original château. Both suites had ceilings painted with scenes from mythology; the King's ceilings featured male figures, the Queen's featured females. Known as an "English Place" (Lieu à l'Anglaise), the flush toilet was supplied with water from an overhead tank and emptied into a ground level drain, preventing lingering odors. Those on display today were made in 1770 for the marriage of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, based on the moldings of earlier silver versions made by LeBrun that had been melted down. [41], When these results and the high quality achieved were brought to the attention of the French Minister of Culture, he revived 18th-century weaving techniques so as to reproduce the silks used in the decoration of Versailles. The Salon of Diana was used by Louis XIV as a billiards room, and had galleries from which courtiers could watch him play. The angry crowd demanded that King Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, and their children return to Paris. Palace of Versailles. History >> French Revolution The Women's March on Versailles was an important event at the start of the French Revolution. Find out more about Victor Hugo ... with our video (english subtitles): Aurore Dupin, better known as George Sand, was also a staunch critic of the Empire. Light was provided by candelabra on large gilded guerdirons lining the hall. Its most famous room is the Galerie des Batailles (Hall of Battles), which lies on most of the length of the second floor. It was owned by the Gondi family and the priory of Saint Julian. But shifting political circumstances scuppered David’s plans, and the painting never made it past the sketch stage. Emperor Napoleon III used the Palace on occasion as a stage for grand ceremonies. The end of the construction is scheduled for summer 2020. [73] The four tiers are covered in 230 pieces of marble, composed of the white and grey-veined Cararra, greenish marble from Campan, and red marble from Languedoc. 111 25 March – 18 April to Sr. Lois and Sr. de Villers silversmiths who are working on a silver balustrade for the king, for continued work (two payments): 40,000 livres, II. Following the Franco-German War in 1871 and then the Paris Commune until 1875, the French National Assembly met in the opera, until the proclamation of the Third French Republic and the return of the government to Paris. [110], In 1667, the name of the enterprise was changed to the Manufacture royale des Meubles de la Couronne. [39], In 1978, parts of the Palace were heavily damaged in a bombing committed by Breton terrorists. In 1830, Louis-Philippe I became king. The king also commissioned the landscape designer André Le Nôtre to create the most magnificent gardens in Europe, embellished with fountains, statues, basins, canals, geometric flower beds and groves of trees. The treaty was signed in the Hall of Mirrors. [42] One of the more costly endeavours for the museum and France's Fifth Republic has been to repurchase as much of the original furnishings as possible. Louis XV commissioned a bathroom to be built when he was thirteen years old - he would later build bathrooms supplied with plumbed-in hot and cold water. Not far from the Petit Trianon she had the Rock Pavilion constructed, and added the classical rotunda of the Temple of Love, built in 1777. One deputy stepped forward and proclaimed “We are here by the will of the people, and only bayonets will remove us.” That deputy was Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, Comte de Mirabeau. This article often employs shortened footnotes. [111] In December 1689, to defray the cost of the War of the League of Augsburg, Louis XIV ordered all the silver furniture and articles of silver at Versailles – including chamber pots – sent to the mint to be melted. Political transformation first and foremost, but social transformation too. In October 1789, thousands of Parisians, many of them women, embarked on a 12-mile march to Versailles, the residence of the French king Louis XVI and the National Constituent Assembly. Louis XVIII was the driving force behind the Charter of 1814, which many considered to be a compromise solution retaining certain progressive elements of the Revolution and the Empire, while also restoring the Bourbon dynasty to the throne. 215–229. An estimate in 2000 placed the amount spent during the Ancien Régime as US$2 billion,[114] this figure being, in all probability, an under-evaluation. Vernet’s painting "The Duc d'Orléans leaves the Palais-Royal for the Hôtel de Ville" is a glorious scene in which Louis-Philippe is the hero. [62], The King's bedchamber had originally been the State Drawing Room and had been used by Queen Marie-Theresa, but after her death in 1701 Louis XIV took it over to use as his own bedroom and died there on September 1, 1715. On 6 October 1789, Louis XVI left the Palace of Versailles. Apollo, the sun god, was the emblem of Louis XIV, featured in much of the decoration of the palace. As the center of the French court, Versailles was one of the grandest theaters of European absolutism. The eastern facing palace has a U-shaped layout, with the corps de logis and symmetrical advancing secondary wings terminating with the Dufour Pavilion on the south and the Gabriel Pavilion to the north, creating an expansive cour d'honneur known as the Royal Court (Cour Royale). This famous peace treaty definitively marked the end of the First World War. Saule & Meyrer 2000, pp. [96], The Petit Trianon was created between 1763 and 1768 by Ange-Jacques Gabriel for Louis XV. [13], In 1670, Le Vau added a new pavilion northwest of the chateau, called the Trianon, for the King's relaxation in the hot summers. Each set of apartments was connected to the ground floor with a ceremonial stairway, and each had seven rooms, aligned in a row; a vestibule, a room for the guards, an antechamber, chamber, a large cabinet or office; a smaller bedroom, and a smaller cabinet. The period we know as the French Revolution, starting in earnest in 1789, was a time of dramatic transformation in France. The Palace of Versailles had come to be seen as an emblem of the country’s shared heritage; it was in this period that artists from all horizons began to appropriate the royal palace, and Versailles inspired homages and imitations all over the world. For the city of Versailles, see, The hunting lodge and château of Louis XIII, Louis XVI, and the Palace during the Revolution, 19th century - history museum and government venue, The Parterre d'Eau and the Parterre and Fountain of Latona, Fountain of the Chariot of Apollo and the Grand Canal, North Parterre, Dragon Basin, and Basin of Neptune, Modern Political and ceremonial functions, Under Louis XIV the garden and park were enlarged further, eventually reaching 2,473. [35], The uprising of the Paris Commune in March, 1871, prevented the French government, under Adolphe Thiers, from returning immediately to Paris. This painting by Alfred Roll, now in the reserve collections of the Palace of Versailles, is a perfect illustration of this strategy. Napoleon I is shown here in a portrait by François Gérard, himself a pupil of David : Napoleon I, Emperor of the French - Gérard FrançoisLe lien vers le site collection. The Germans remained in the Palace until the signing of the armistice in March 1871. It shows Louis XIV, facing the powers of Europe, turning away from his pleasures to accept a crown of immortality from Glory, with the encouragement of Mars. Napoleon Bonaparte is shown here during his time as First Consul. Originally arranged for the use of the Marie-Thérèse, consort of Louis XIV, the rooms were later modified for use by Marie Leszczyńska and finally for Marie-Antoinette. Formal beds of turf and boxwood outlined by gravel paths to form arabesque patterns were created, faithful to the original designs of Le Nôtre. [74], The Latona Fountain underwent a major renovation between 2012 and 2015, which required the removal of its statuary, marble fittings, and lead pipe network for off-site restoration. French Revolution Women's March on Versailles. On the one hand, the monarchists intended to reinstate a King; on the other, the "Communards" refused to accept the defeat at the hands of the Prussians and attempted to establish their own “social” republic. [82] In 1681, construction commenced on the Machine de Marly at Bougival; the machine consisted of 14 paddle wheels powered by the currents of the Seine. In 1682 Louis XIV was able to proclaim Versailles his principal residence and the seat of the government and was able to give rooms in the palace to almost all of his courtiers. When Napoleon came to power, he had an apartment created for himself in the Grand Trianon, complete with a map room.King Louis Philippe, in the museum he created, showcased … Thanks to the partnership between the Palace of Versailles and Google Arts & Culture, you can now visit the Palace of Versailles using virtual reality. However, due to the expense of the King's continental wars, the project was put aside. Almost half a century after the German Empire had been proclaimed in the Hall of Mirrors, Georges Clemenceau savoured his revenge. For the extensive park around the palace, see, "Versailles" redirects here. Map View. Find the perfect french revolution versailles stock photo. When it chimes the hour, figures of Louis XIV and Fame descend from a cloud. Additionally, Louis XIV's granddaughter-in-law, Princess Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy, duchesse de Bourgogne, wife of the Petit Dauphin, occupied these rooms from 1697 (the year of her marriage) to her death in 1712.[b]. [28] The Queen was at the Petit Trianon in July 1789 when she first learned of the beginning of the French Revolution. The palace was largely completed by the death of Louis XIV in 1715. He instead took the title King of the French, breaking with established royal tradition. The King had become increasingly conservative and removed from the French people: the July Monarchy came to an end with his abdication, on 24 February 1848. In 1793, the Convention declared the abolition of the monarchy, and ordered all of the royal property in the Palace to be sold at auction. Why not revise your French history with a little help from the works in the museum, and the digital content created by the Palace of Versailles?Rediscover the history of France from the French Revolution to the interwar period, thanks to our treasure trove of artworks, videos, expert analyses and 3D content. [76] The parterre surrounding the fountain, landscaped with lawns and flower beds according to 19th century taste, was also completely overhauled. On 18 Brumaire of the Year VIII (9 November 1799), a coup d'état overthrew the Directory which had ruled France since 1795. The week of 21 to 28 May 1871 came to be known as the “bloody week.”. 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